Projekt

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Spatially Explicit Evolution of Diversity (SPEED)

Gesuchsteller/in Pearman Peter
Nummer 125240
Förderungsinstrument Sinergia
Forschungseinrichtung Eidg. Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft WSL
Hochschule Eidg. Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft - WSL
Hauptdisziplin Botanik
Beginn/Ende 01.10.2009 - 31.05.2013
Bewilligter Betrag 977'701.17
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Keywords (25)

evolution; climate; niche; trait; model; phylogeny; Africa; Restionaceae; community; species; likelihood; Bayesian; drought; experiment; greenhouse; survival; environmental; occurrence; stratified; functional; gradient; sampling; clade; pool; Cape

Lay Summary (Englisch)

Lead
Lay summary
BackgroundThe species environmental niche consists of the biotic and abiotic conditions necessary for long-term persistence. This concept occupies a central place in the ecological theories of competition, limiting ecological similarity, and species distribution. The niche is also important in determining how species respond to ongoing climate change. Species with narrow niches occur in the few geographic locations that offer acceptable conditions. When these species have limited capacity for dispersal, and/or have been isolated by human activity, climate change may force upon species the alternatives of rapid adaptation (via response to natural selection) or extinction. We focus on the niches of species in the Restionaceae, largely endemic to South Africa.The GoalsWe seek to understand how the species niche has evolved and how the capacity for niche change might impact future patterns of species diversity in the face of ongoing climate change. Gaining an understanding of these niche dynamics entails understanding how species niches differ currently and how these differences evolved. We need to understand how rates of evolution in groups of related species change in time. To understand how niche evolution translates into changes in biodiversity, we need to understand how ecological similarities among species, represented by species evolutionary relationships, influence the composition of ecological communities.The ApproachWe combine the approaches of evolutionary theory, molecular systematics, and ecology. The approach is interdisciplinary in that activities in these areas produce results that are used to support subsequent activities in other disciplines. Notably, DNA sequence data provide the raw material for developing hypotheses of evolutionary relationships. Data on species occurrences and climate allow us to model the species niche. We combine information on evolutionary relationships, ecological characteristics, and species composition in communities to determine how evolutionary relationships influence the assembly of communities.The Significance of the ProjectThis project develops a framework for evaluating how rapid evolution might contribute to species responses to climate change. With this framework it will be possible to evaluate the potential for evolutionary response to climate change in large groups, potentially hundreds, of related species. We will develop more informed projections of the impacts of ongoing climate change by combining ecological data, understanding of evolutionary relationships and rates, and projections of future climates.
Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 21.02.2013

Verantw. Gesuchsteller/in und weitere Gesuchstellende

Mitarbeitende

Publikationen

Publikation
‘Next generation’ biogeography: towards understanding the drivers of species diversification and persistence
Lexer C, Mangili S, Bossolini E, Forest F, Stölting KN, Pearman PB, Zimmermann NE, Salamin N (2013), ‘Next generation’ biogeography: towards understanding the drivers of species diversification and persistence, in Journal of Biogeography, 40, 1013-1022.
Conservation of phylogeographic lineages under climate change
D'Amen Manuela, Zimmermann Niklaus E., Pearman Peter B. (2013), Conservation of phylogeographic lineages under climate change, in GLOBAL ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY, 22(1), 93-104.
Temporal and spatial origin of Gesneriaceae in the New World inferred from plastid DNA sequences
Perret Mathieu, Chautems Alain, De Araujo Andrea Onofre, Salamin Nicolas (2013), Temporal and spatial origin of Gesneriaceae in the New World inferred from plastid DNA sequences, in BOTANICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, 171(1), 61-79.
Mutualism with sea anemones triggered the adaptive radiation of clownfishes
Litsios Glenn, Sims Carrie A., Wueest Rafael O., Pearman Peter B., Zimmermann Niklaus E., Salamin Nicolas (2012), Mutualism with sea anemones triggered the adaptive radiation of clownfishes, in BMC EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, 12, 212.
Trophic specialization influences the rate of environmental niche evolution in damselfishes (Pomacentridae)
Litsios G, Pellissier L, Forest F, Lexer C, Pearman PB, Zimmermann NE, Salamin N (2012), Trophic specialization influences the rate of environmental niche evolution in damselfishes (Pomacentridae), in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Biological Sciences, 279, 3662-3669.
Effects of Phylogenetic Signal on Ancestral State Reconstruction
Litsios Glenn, Salamin Nicolas (2012), Effects of Phylogenetic Signal on Ancestral State Reconstruction, in SYSTEMATIC BIOLOGY, 61(3), 533-538.
Measuring ecological niche overlap from occurrence and spatial environmental data
Broennimann Olivier, Fitzpatrick Matthew C., Pearman Peter B., Petitpierre Blaise, Pellissier Loic, Yoccoz Nigel G., Thuiller Wilfried, Fortin Marie-Josee, Randin Christophe, Zimmermann Niklaus E., Graham Catherine H., Guisan Antoine (2012), Measuring ecological niche overlap from occurrence and spatial environmental data, in GLOBAL ECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY, 21(4), 481-497.
Tracing the recombination and colonization history of hybrid species in space and time
Lexer C, Stölting KN (2011), Tracing the recombination and colonization history of hybrid species in space and time, in Molecular Ecology, 20, 3701-3704.
21st century climate change threatens mountain flora unequally across Europe
Engler Robin, Randin Christophe F., Thuiller Wilfried, Dullinger Stefan, Zimmermann Niklaus E., Araujo Miguel B., Pearman Peter B., Le Lay Gwenaelle, Piedallu Christian, Albert Cecile H., Choler Philippe, Coldea Gheorghe, De Lamo Xavier, Dirnbock Thomas, Gegout Jean-Claude, Gomez-Garcia Daniel, Grytnes John-Arvid, Heegaard Einar, Hoistad Fride, Nogues-Bravo David, Normand Signe, Puscas Mihai, Sebastia Maria-Teresa, Stanisci Angela, Theurillat Jean-Paul (2011), 21st century climate change threatens mountain flora unequally across Europe, in GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, 17(7), 2330-2341.
Impacts of climate change on Swiss biodiversity: An indicator taxa approach
Pearman Peter B., Guisan Antoine, Zimmermann Niklaus E. (2011), Impacts of climate change on Swiss biodiversity: An indicator taxa approach, in BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, 144(2), 866-875.
Assessing rapid evolution in a changing environment
Salamin Nicolas, Wueest Rafael O., Lavergne Sebastien, Thuiller Wilfried, Pearman Peter B. (2010), Assessing rapid evolution in a changing environment, in TRENDS IN ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, 25(12), 692-698.
Within-taxon niche structure: niche conservatism, divergence and predicted effects of climate change
Pearman Peter B., D'Amen Manuela, Graham Catherine H., Thuiller Wilfried, Zimmermann Niklaus E. (2010), Within-taxon niche structure: niche conservatism, divergence and predicted effects of climate change, in ECOGRAPHY, 33(6), 990-1003.

Zusammenarbeit

Gruppe / Person Land
Formen der Zusammenarbeit
SANBI, Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens Südafrika (Republik) (Afrika)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
- Forschungsinfrastrukturen

Wissenschaftliche Veranstaltungen

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
Plant Population Biology 2013 09.05.2013 Tartu, Estonia
Symposium on 'Adaptive landscape genetics' 07.02.2012 Neuchatel, Switzerland
Genomics of tropical biodiversity 21.06.2011 Xishuangbanna, China
Meeting of the Society for the Study of Evolution 17.06.2011 Norman, Oklahoma, USA


Selber organisiert

Titel Datum Ort
Invited Speaker, Thomas C. Edwards Jr., Utah State University, USA 24.04.2013 Swiss Fed. Res. Inst. WSL
Invited Speaker, Catherine Graham, Stony Brook Univ., USA 24.05.2012 Swiss Fed. Res. Inst. WSL

Veranstaltungen zum Wissenstransfer

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
Workshop on "Zukunftstrends in der Integrativen Biodiversitätsforschung" 21.11.2011 Vienna, Austria


Verbundene Projekte

Nummer Titel Start Förderungsinstrument
147630 Testing the limits and constraints of species radiations 01.06.2014 Sinergia
122433 Evolutionary Niche dyNamics of Invasive Species (ENNIS) 01.06.2009 Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)

Abstract

The species environmental niche consists of the biotic and abiotic conditions necessary for long-term persistence and the niche occupies a central place in the development of ecological theories of competition, limiting similarity, and character divergence. We study interspecific variation in niche characteristics by adopting an evolutionary perspective. Application of a toolkit used in the disciplines of systematics and evolutionary biology enables us to address how the environmental niche has changed in a family of plants during the diversification of a clade. We focus on the Restionaceae, a monophyletic family of grass-like plants of which 340 of the 350 species are endemic to southern Africa. This is a defensible choice because the relative climatic stability of this region during the Pleistocene suggests that these species distributions are currently at equilibrium with climate. Under accelerating climate change, the capacity of these species for rapid niche evolution will contribute to determining their fate in a landscape where opportunities for successful dispersal to areas of favourable climate may be limited by intervening expanses of unsuitable habitat and the anthropogenic barriers of agriculture, transportation corridors and urbanization. We will develop models of niche evolution that serve both for understanding the evolution of extant species diversity and community structure, and for forecasting how diversity and community structure change, given projected climate change and the potential we identify for rapid niche evolution. We will model characteristics of the ß-niche (habitat-specific, e.g. geology, fire frequency and vegetation type) and ?-niche (climatic), using field-acquired occurrence data for each species. New GIS data layers of fire frequency and geology will be developed. The relationship between the fundamental and the estimated realized niche will be experimentally evaluated in multiple species. We will compare in a greenhouse experiment the drought and flooding tolerances of species to their modelled precipitation requirements. A transplant experiment in the field will help us determine whether species replacement along an elevation and rainfall gradient is driven primarily by fundamental niche requirements or by interspecific competition and, thus, the realized niche. We will quantify the evolutionary lability of the environmental niche by modelling selected niche parameters over a completely-sampled species-level phylogeny. This will indicate which parameters have constrained the evolution of the clade and which parameters are associated with differentiation and speciation. However, working with species-level phylogenies and niche models has formerly entailed assumptions of constant evolutionary rates and equal inheritance of trait variance by new species. These assumptions will be addressed in population-level analyses of species complexes to determine speciation modes and establish their impacts on the patterns of inheritance of niche variability. Further studies will estimate using models of trait evolution the variation among clades in rates of niche change.Using data on species distributions, chorological analyses and niche modeling we will determine current regional species pools. These will further be stratified into habitat-specific species pools, using field observations, niche models and models of environmental filtering. Then, using species traits and phylogenetic relationships, we will seek the determinants of community assembly (i.e., the combinations of species from the regional pool that can be combined into communities). Using the model parameters developed to address the above questions, we will attempt to estimate the possible contribution of rapid evolution of species environmental niches to change in regional species pools and local communities that may accompany altered climate. These analyses will provide a powerful tool with which to evaluate and predict the response to climate change by multiple, related species and how these changes could impact regional spatial patterns of diversity in the Restionaceae.The SPEED project developes the tools necessary to address the effects of climate change and the evolutionary response of species to it. We intend to develop means to convert knowledge on these changes into geographically-explicit patterns of species diversity in the Restionaceae. We extend the potential impact of our work by including an integrated program for training three Ph.D. students in the evolutionary and ecological modeling techniques that we develop and use during this research.
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