Project

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Interactions within and between specialised cortical networks: postlesional plasticity and the underlying connectivity

English title Interactions within and between specialised cortical networks: postlesional plasticity and the underlying connectivity
Applicant Clarke Stéphanie
Number 124897
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Division de Neuropsychologie CHUV
Institution of higher education University of Lausanne - LA
Main discipline Neurology, Psychiatry
Start/End 01.04.2009 - 31.03.2012
Approved amount 755'000.00
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Keywords (14)

auditory cognition; auditory cortex; neural plasticit; connectivity; recovery; neurorehabilitation; Audition; Human; Brain lesion; Functional imaging; Neurorehabilitation,; Neural networks; Cerebral cortex; Plasticity

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
While listening to our environment we readily identify specific objects, animals or people and we immediately grasp where there are in relation to our position. Research of the past decade has shown that the two aspects, the identification of a sound source and its location, are processed in our brains in two separate population of neurons, called the auditory What and Where pathways. The What and Where pathways process auditory information independently in many simple situations; this separate processing accounts for our capacity to recognise sounds very rapidly or to learn rapidly to discriminate very near positions.We will investigate the interactions between the auditory What and Where pathways in complex situations of sound recognition and of sound localisation. First, we will identify by means of EEG imaging, in normal, healthy subjects, neural populations which are involved in different levels of sound analysis and particularly in perceptual, semantic and space-related representations of sound objects. We will also assess, in patients with brain lesions due to stroke or traumatic brain injury, the effects of focal hemispheric lesions on object specific representations and the reorganisation of these representations associated with recovery. Second, we will investigate plasticity, i. e., changes of cortical representations and of connections between neurons, following a short (half-day) or a long training (5 consecutive days); the training will concern the discrimination of nearby sound positions and will be done in normal subjects or in patients with focal lesions. The primary importance of the project is conceptual, in that it will help to understand better how complex auditory features are represented in the brain and how these representations contribute to our conscious perception of the auditory world. However, this project is also likely to give a new understanding of the recovery of cognitive functions and their rehabilitation in brain-damaged patients.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Repetition-induced plasticity of motor representations of action sounds.
Bourquin Nathalie M-P, Simonin Alexandre, Clarke Stephanie (2013), Repetition-induced plasticity of motor representations of action sounds., in Brain topography, 26(1), 152-6.
Auditory spatial deficits following hemispheric lesions: dissociation of explicit and implicit processing.
Duffour-Nikolov Catherine, Tardif Eric, Maeder Philippe, Thiran Anne Bellmann, Bloch Jocelyne, Frischknecht Rolf, Clarke Stephanie (2012), Auditory spatial deficits following hemispheric lesions: dissociation of explicit and implicit processing., in Neuropsychological rehabilitation, 22(5), 674-96.
Nineteenth century research on cell death.
Clarke P G H, Clarke S (2012), Nineteenth century research on cell death., in Experimental oncology, 34(3), 139-45.
Cognitive efficacy of quetiapine in early-onset first-episode psychosis: a 12-week open label trial.
Urben Sébastien, Baumann Pierre, Barcellona Sandra, Hafil Muriel, Preuss Ulrich, Peter-Favre Claire, Clarke Stéphanie, Halfon Olivier, Holzer Laurent (2012), Cognitive efficacy of quetiapine in early-onset first-episode psychosis: a 12-week open label trial., in The Psychiatric quarterly, 83(3), 311-24.
Neural plasticity associated with recently versus often heard objects.
Bourquin Nathalie M-P, Spierer Lucas, Murray Micah M, Clarke Stephanie (2012), Neural plasticity associated with recently versus often heard objects., in NeuroImage, 62(3), 1800-6.
Human primary auditory cortex follows the shape of Heschl's gyrus.
Da Costa Sandra, van der Zwaag Wietske, Marques Jose P, Frackowiak Richard S J, Clarke Stephanie, Saenz Melissa (2011), Human primary auditory cortex follows the shape of Heschl's gyrus., in The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 31(40), 14067-75.
Growing up with bilateral hippocampal atrophy: from childhood to teenage.
Bindschaedler Claire, Peter-Favre Claire, Maeder Philippe, Hirsbrunner Thérèse, Clarke Stephanie (2011), Growing up with bilateral hippocampal atrophy: from childhood to teenage., in Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior, 47(8), 931-44.
The role of the right parietal cortex in sound localization: a chronometric single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation study.
At Ayse, Spierer Lucas, Clarke Stephanie (2011), The role of the right parietal cortex in sound localization: a chronometric single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation study., in Neuropsychologia, 49(9), 2794-7.
[Cognitive impairment in alcohol addiction].
Lindemann Astrigh, Antille Valérie, Clarke Stéphanie (2011), [Cognitive impairment in alcohol addiction]., in Revue médicale suisse, 7(302), 1450-1450.
Where sound position influences sound object representations: a 7-T fMRI study.
van der Zwaag Wietske, Gentile Giovanni, Gruetter Rolf, Spierer Lucas, Clarke Stephanie (2011), Where sound position influences sound object representations: a 7-T fMRI study., in NeuroImage, 54(3), 1803-11.
Learning-induced plasticity in human audition: objects, time, and space.
Spierer Lucas, De Lucia Marzia, Bernasconi Fosco, Grivel Jeremy, Bourquin Nathalie M-P, Clarke Stephanie, Murray Micah M (2011), Learning-induced plasticity in human audition: objects, time, and space., in Hearing research, 271(1-2), 88-102.
A temporal hierarchy for conspecific vocalization discrimination in humans.
De Lucia Marzia, Clarke Stephanie, Murray Micah M (2010), A temporal hierarchy for conspecific vocalization discrimination in humans., in The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 30(33), 11210-21.
Perceptual and semantic contributions to repetition priming of environmental sounds.
De Lucia Marzia, Cocchi Luca, Martuzzi Roberto, Meuli Reto A, Clarke Stephanie, Murray Micah M (2010), Perceptual and semantic contributions to repetition priming of environmental sounds., in Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991), 20(7), 1676-84.
GABA receptor subunits in human auditory cortex in normal and stroke cases.
Sacco Carolyn B, Tardif Eric, Genoud Christel, Probst Alphonse, Tolnay Markus, Janzer Robert-Charles, Verney Catherine, Kraftsik Rudolf, Clarke Stephanie (2009), GABA receptor subunits in human auditory cortex in normal and stroke cases., in Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis, 69(4), 469-93.
The role of actions in auditory object discrimination.
De Lucia Marzia, Camen Christian, Clarke Stephanie, Murray Micah M (2009), The role of actions in auditory object discrimination., in NeuroImage, 48(2), 475-85.
Hemispheric competence for auditory spatial representation.
Spierer Lucas, Bellmann-Thiran Anne, Maeder Philippe, Murray Micah M, Clarke Stephanie (2009), Hemispheric competence for auditory spatial representation., in Brain : a journal of neurology, 132(Pt 7), 1953-66.

Scientific events



Self-organised

Title Date Place
4th Conference on Auditory Cortex 31.08.2012 Lausanne
7th World Congress for Neurorehabilitation 16.05.2012 Melbourne
6th World Congress for Neurorehabilitation 21.03.2010 Vienna

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
103895 Cortical plasticity in man: postlesional changes in parallel processing and their role in recovery 01.04.2004 Project funding (Div. I-III)
141177 Interaction within and between specialised cortical networks 01.04.2012 Project funding (Div. I-III)

Abstract

Interactions within and between specialised cortical networks: postlesional plasticity and the underlying connectivity1. Summary1.1 BackroundSeveral lines of evidence from human and non-human primate studies support a dual-pathway model of audition, with partially segregated cortical networks for sound recognition and sound localisation. Haemodynamic and electrophysiological studies in normal human subjects have shown that these two networks overlap partially, suggesting that parts of the auditory cortex are involved in processing of either auditory feature alone or the two in combination. Our project will concentrate on how these pathways participate in two particular tasks, the representation of sound objects and auditory spatial plasticity. The representation of visual objects has been shown to comprise multiple levels, as demonstrated with repetition priming paradigms in combination with fMRI or EEG. A similar organisation may exist for sound object representations.The auditory spatial system is highly plastic, but only a few studies have addressed the issue of learning-related plasticity of auditory spatial representations in man. In animal models perceptual learning has been shown to pass through a stage of fast and a subsequent stage of slow improvement, associated with changes of neural connectivity. The complex connections of the human brain can be in part visualised by structural and functional MRI techniques, and the connectivity patterns deduced in the two cases match. Functional connectivity, as revealed by coherent spontaneous fluctuations of the BOLD signal, can be altered by a relatively short intervening motor or cognitive task.1.2 Working hypothesisi) The recognition of sound objects relies critically on the interaction between perceptual, semantic and space- or action-related representations. A transient disruption or focal lesion within one or several of these representations impairs recognition; recovery following focal lesions depends on the reconstitution of an alternative network.ii) Plastic changes in auditory spatial representations due to discrimination training in normal subjects involve several mechanisms, including activity modulations within the corresponding networks, changes of network configuration or more widespread changes in functional connectivity. Transient disruption of the activity within the involved network at specific temporo-spatial points impairs discrimination performance and, when applied during learning, its improvement.iii) Following unilateral hemispheric lesions, recovery and the ability to improve performance through training depend on the extent to which specific neural networks re-establish functional connectivity within and between the damaged and intact hemispheres.1.3 Specific aimsi)Determine the temporo-spatial patterns of neural activity associated with different levels of sound object analysis and particularly with perceptual, semantic and space-related representations. Assess the effect of transient disruptions of action-related sound representations on sound recognition.ii)Assess the effects of focal hemispheric lesions on object specific representations and the reorganisation of these representations associated with recovery.iii)Determine how short (half-day) and long auditory spatial discrimination training (5 consecutive days) changes cortical spatial representations and cortical connectivity in normal subjects and in patients with a first focal hemispheric lesions.iv)Assess the effect of transient disruption at specific temporo-spatial points of the auditory spatial discrimination network on discrimination performance and learning.v)Establish longitudinal data of long-term post-stroke functional and structural plasticity in a well defined patient population and compare how postlesional changes in structural and functional connectivity correlate with recovery or effects of specific rehabilitation measures.1.4 Experimental design and methodsProject A. The temporo-spatial patterns of i) perceptual, ii) semantic, and iii) spatially dependent/independent sound object representations will be investigated with priming effect paradigms in normal subjects and in patients with a first focal hemispheric lesion. Using EEG we will investigate, apart from reaction times, the temporo-spatial patterns of neural activity, making use of the fine temporal resolution of the EEG. Using fMRI we will investigate the finer aspects of the anatomical organisation of the involved network, in particular in the supratemporal region, where our new registration method will allow us to analyse activations within the primary and non-primary auditory areas. In a second part, the interactions between sound and action representations will be investigated in normal subjects with single-pulse TMS.Project B. Normal subjects and patients with a first focal hemispheric lesion will undergo a short or a long auditory spatial discrimination training combined with an EEG or structural and functional connectivity study. In a second part, auditory spatial discrimination training will be combined in normal subjects with single-pulse TMS to determine which are the critical events for learning and plastic changes to occur.Project C. Structural and functional connectivity as well as network analysis will be carried out in normal subjects and patients with a first focal hemispheric lesion before and after auditory spatial training, to assess plastic changes associated with learning. In addition, we will establish and analyse longitudinal data of long-term post-stroke functional and structural plasticity in a well defined patient population.1.5 Expected value of the proposed projectThe primary importance of the project is conceptual, in that it will help to answer several fundamental questions. By addressing these issues in non-verbal auditory domain, we will be able to draw comparisons with data from animal models and yet to extrapolate to human functions such as language. Thus, this research is likely to give new understanding of the recovery of cognitive functions and their rehabilitation in brain-damaged patients.
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