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Multi-Dimensional Supernova Models and the Prediction of Observables from Different Explosion Mechanisms

English title Multi-Dimensional Supernova Models and the Prediction of Observables from Different Explosion Mechanisms
Applicant Liebendörfer Matthias
Number 124879
Funding scheme SNSF Professorships
Research institution Departement Physik Universität Basel
Institution of higher education University of Basel - BS
Main discipline Theoretical Physics
Start/End 01.09.2009 - 30.11.2011
Approved amount 520'076.00
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Keywords (14)

core-collapse supernovae; neutron stars; dense matter; QCD phase transition; neutrino interactions; gravitational waves; large-scale parallel computing; astrophysics; stellar physics; supernova; compact objects; neutrinos; computational fluid dynamics; radiative transfer

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
Core-collapse supernova explosions occur at the end of the life of massive stars. Nuclear fusion in the stellar core builds elements up to iron until the inner core becomes unstable to gravitational collapse. The collapse is halted when the atomic nuclei have merged to uniform nuclear matter. A short dynamical bounce leads to the formation of a standing shock wave that slowly expands its radius against the continued accretion of infalling outer stellar layers. The high-density matter at the center forms a new-born neutron star and may continue to collapse to a black hole if the accretion rate is too high. Otherwise, after a delay, an energetic explosion is thought to be launched above the surface of the neutron star producing ejecta with characteristic abundances of elements. Corresponding abundances of heavy elements are seen in the lightcurve of supernovae, but also in spectral lines of the next generation of stars that form out of the polluted interstellar gas. A confirmation of the collapse scenario has been obtained by the direct observation of neutrinos in the event of SN1987A. Neutrinos are copiously produced at high density and radiate away about 100 times the energy of the kinetic explosion during the collapse, accretion and neutron star cooling phases.The theoretical understanding of the supernova explosion mechanism is crucial for the understanding of the stellar life cycle, the feedback of internal energy to the interstellar gas in star-forming regions, and the enrichment of the Galaxy with heavy elements. Supernovae are active in all observational windows and emit a broad spectrum of electro-magnetic waves, neutrinos, cosmic rays and probably gravitational waves. A quantitative understanding of the supernova explosion mechanism may grant observational access to matter under extreme conditions not accessible in the laboratory where new physics could be discovered. In this project we build three-dimensional supernova models and aim to predict the emission of neutrinos and gravitational waves. In particular, we investigate the observable effects of an early QCD phase transition to quark matter in the neutron star. Moreover, we try to clarify the interaction of neutrinos, fluid instabilities and magnetic fields in the supernova explosion mechanism.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Computer-Modeling of Stars
R.~Diehl & N.~Prantzos (ed.) (2011), Computer-Modeling of Stars, Springer, Berlin 812.
Core-collapse Supernova Explosions Triggered by a Quark-Hadron Phase Transition During the Early Post-bounce Phase
{Fischer} T., {Sagert} I., {Pagliara} G., {Hempel} M., {Schaffner-Bielich} J., {Rauscher} T., {Thielemann} F.-K., {K��ppeli}} R., {Mart��nez-Pinedo}} G., {Liebend��rfer}} M. (2011), Core-collapse Supernova Explosions Triggered by a Quark-Hadron Phase Transition During the Early Post-bounce Phase, in \apjs, 194, 39-39.
FISH: A Three-dimensional Parallel Magnetohydrodynamics Code for Astrophysical Applications
{K��ppeli}} R., {Whitehouse} S.~C., {Scheidegger} S., {Pen} U.-L., {Liebend��rfer}} M. (2011), FISH: A Three-dimensional Parallel Magnetohydrodynamics Code for Astrophysical Applications, in \apjs, 195, 20-20.
Impacts of Collective Neutrino Oscillations on Core-collapse Supernova Explosions
{Suwa} Y., {Kotake} K., {Takiwaki} T., {Liebend��rfer}} M., {Sato} K. (2011), Impacts of Collective Neutrino Oscillations on Core-collapse Supernova Explosions, in \apj, 738, 165-165.
Massive Stars and Their Supernovae
R.~Diehl & N.~Prantzos (ed.) (2011), Massive Stars and Their Supernovae, Springer, Berlin 812.
Numerical parameter survey of non-radiative black hole accretion: flow structure and variability of the rotation measure
{Pang} B., {Pen} U.-L., {Matzner} C.~D., {Green} S.~R., {Liebend��rfer}} M. (2011), Numerical parameter survey of non-radiative black hole accretion: flow structure and variability of the rotation measure, in \mnras, 415, 1228-1239.
What are the astrophysical sites for the r-process and the production of heavy elements?
{Thielemann} F.-K., {Arcones} A., {K��ppeli}} R., {Liebend��rfer}} M., {Rauscher} T., {Winteler} C., {Fr��hlich}} C., {Dillmann} I., {Fischer} T., {Martinez-Pinedo} G., {Langanke} K., {Farouqi} K., {Kratz} K.-L., {Panov} I., {Korneev} I.~K. (2011), What are the astrophysical sites for the r-process and the production of heavy elements?, in Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, 66, 346-353.
Can a Supernova Bang Twice?
{Schaffner-Bielich} J., {Fischer} T., {Hempel} M., {Liebend��rfer}} M., {Pagliara} G., {Sagert} I. (2010), Can a Supernova Bang Twice?, in Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement, 186, 93-98.
Detecting the QCD phase transition in the next Galactic supernova neutrino burst
{Dasgupta} B., {Fischer} T., {Horiuchi} S., {Liebend��rfer}} M., {Mirizzi} A., {Sagert} I., {Schaffner-Bielich} J. (2010), Detecting the QCD phase transition in the next Galactic supernova neutrino burst, in \prd, 81(10), 103005-103005.
Explosion Geometry of a Rotating 13M$_{&sun;}$ Star Driven by the SASI-Aided Neutrino-Heating Supernova Mechanism
{Suwa} Y., {Kotake} K., {Takiwaki} T., {Whitehouse} S.~C., {Liebend��rfer}} M., {Sato} K. (2010), Explosion Geometry of a Rotating 13M$_{&sun;}$ Star Driven by the SASI-Aided Neutrino-Heating Supernova Mechanism, in \pasj, 62, 49-49.
Explosions of massive stars and the neutrino-driven wind in simulations using Boltzmann neutrino transport
Explosions of massive stars and the neutrino-driven wind in simulations using Boltzmann neutrino transport, (2010), Explosions of massive stars and the neutrino-driven wind in simulations using Boltzmann neutrino transport, Unbekannt, Unbekannt 1269.
Gravitational waves from supernova matter
{Scheidegger} S., {Whitehouse} S.~C., {K��ppeli}} R., {Liebend��rfer}} M. (2010), Gravitational waves from supernova matter, in Classical and Quantum Gravity, 27(11), 114101-114101.
Neutrino Radiation-Hydrodynamics: General Relativistic versus Multidimensional Supernova Simulations
{Liebend��rfer}} M., {Fischer} T., {Hempel} M., {K��ppeli}} R., {Pagliara} G., {Perego} A., {Sagert} I., {Schaffner-Bielich} J., {Scheidegger} S., {Thielemann} F., {Whitehouse} S.~C. (2010), Neutrino Radiation-Hydrodynamics: General Relativistic versus Multidimensional Supernova Simulations, in Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement, 186, 87-92.
Protoneutron star evolution and the neutrino-driven wind in general relativistic neutrino radiation hydrodynamics simulations
{Fischer} T., {Whitehouse} S.~C., {Mezzacappa} A., {Thielemann} F.-K., {Liebend��rfer}} M. (2010), Protoneutron star evolution and the neutrino-driven wind in general relativistic neutrino radiation hydrodynamics simulations, in \aap, 517, 80-80.
Signals of the QCD phase transition in core collapse supernovae{\mdash}microphysical input and implications on the supernova dynamics
{Fischer} T., {Sagert} I., {Hempel} M., {Pagliara} G., {Schaffner-Bielich} J., {Liebend��rfer}} M. (2010), Signals of the QCD phase transition in core collapse supernovae{\mdash}microphysical input and implications on the supernova dynamics, in Classical and Quantum Gravity, 27(11), 114102-114102.
Strange quark matter in explosive astrophysical systems
{Sagert} I., {Fischer} T., {Hempel} M., {Pagliara} G., {Schaffner-Bielich} J., {Thielemann} F.-K., {Liebend��rfer}} M. (2010), Strange quark matter in explosive astrophysical systems, in Journal of Physics G Nuclear Physics, 37(9), 094064-094064.
The influence of model parameters on the prediction of gravitational wave signals from stellar core collapse
{Scheidegger} S., {K��ppeli}} R., {Whitehouse} S.~C., {Fischer} T., {Liebend��rfer}} M. (2010), The influence of model parameters on the prediction of gravitational wave signals from stellar core collapse, in \aap, 514, 51-51.
The r-, p-, and {$��$}p-Process
{Thielemann} F.-K., {Dillmann} I., {Farouqi} K., {Fischer} T., {Fr��hlich}} C., {Kelic-Heil} A., {Korneev} I., {Kratz} K.-L., {Langanke} K., {Liebend��rfer}} M., {Panov} I.~V., {Martinez-Pinedo} G., {Rauscher} T. (2010), The r-, p-, and {$��$}p-Process, in Journal of Physics Conference Series, 202(1), 012006-012006.

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
122287 Astrophysical Processes, their simulation and related nuclear physics issues 01.10.2008 Project funding (Div. I-III)
106627 Concise numerical algorithms in supernova dynamics: Paving the way to the exploration of environmental and astrophysical phenomena as scientific laboratories 01.09.2005 SNSF Professorships

Abstract

General relativistic models of stellar core collapse in spherical symmetry with accurate Boltztran neutrino transport start to routinely extend to several seconds after core-bounce and a novel isotropic diffusion source approximation enables three-dimensional supernova models with spectral neutrino transport. In the proposed project these new capabilities will be applied and improved to learn about the supernova explosion mechanism, its observables, and the properties of matter under extreme conditions. In particular we aim to predict the emission of neutrinos and gravitational waves from a realistic three-dimensional postbounce evolution and investigate the dynamical and observable effects of an early QCD phase transition in the protoneutron star. After the implementation of a more flexible computational domain and improved input physics, we try to clarify the interaction of neutrinos, fluid instabilities and magnetic fields in supernova explosions.
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