International Law; Law on Transboundary Freshwater Resources; Freshwater Cooperation and Governance; Cooperation Mechanisms; International Environmental Law; Climate Change; Non-State Actors; international governance; natural resources; cooperation; transboundary freshwaters; environmental law
Tignino Mara (2014), The Right to Water and Sanitation in Post-Conflict Legal Mechanisms: an Emerging Regime?, in Erika Weinthal Jessica Troell and Mikiyasu Nakayama (ed.), Earthscan , London , 383-402.
Leb Christina (2013), Cooperation in the Law of Transboundary Water Resources
, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Tignino Mara, McIntyre Owen (2013), Reconciling the UN Watercourses Convention with recent developments in customary international law, in Loures Flavia , Rieu-Clarke Alistair (ed.), Earthscan , London , 286-302.
Boisson de Chazournes Laurence, Leb Christina, Tignino Mara (2011), Environmental Protection and Access to Water: the Challenges Ahead, in M. van der Valk and P. Keenan (ed.), UNESCO-IHE , Delft , 9-24.
Leb Christina, Tignino Mara (2011), Freshwater and International Law – Multiple Challenges, in Environmental Policy and Law
, 41 (4/5 ), 218-221.
Boisson de Chazournes Laurence, Tignino Mara (2011), Gestion internationale de l’eau et développements du droit international, in Le Prestre Philippe (ed.), Presses de l'Université de Laval , Québec , 245-262.
Tignino Mara (2011), L'eau et la guerre: éléments pour un régime juridique
, Bruyant , Bruxelles.
Christina Leb (2011), Peut-on résoudre les conflits transfrontaliers par des règles de préférence dans les utilisations de l’eau ?, in Société française pour le droit international, Colloque d'Orléans, L'eau en droit international
, Orléans Pedone, Paris.
Tignino Mara (2011), The Right to Water and Sanitation in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, in Water International
, 36(2 ), 241-248.
Tignino Mara, Allan Andrew, Loures Flavia (2011), The Role and Relevance of the Draft Articles on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers in the European Context, in Journal for European Environmental & Planning Law
, 8 (3 ), 231-251.
Boisson de Chazournes Laurence, Tignino Mara (2010), Le règlement des différends internationaux relatifs à l'eau, in Conseil d'Etat (ed.), La Documentation française , Paris , 489-514.
Tignino Mara (2010), Les contours du principe de la participation publique et la protection des ressources en eau transfrontières, in Vertigo - La revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement
, Hors série 7, 1-15.
Tignino Mara (2010), Water, international peace and security, in International Review of the Red Cross
, 92(879 ), 647 -674.
Future scenarios on the utilization and development of the Earth’s freshwater resources largely focus on the conflict potential inherent in the competing demands over the resource. The image of “future water wars” is regularly evoked by the media, and a large number of publications exist, that take a conflict approach with respect to the topic of tranbsoundary water management. Yet, this approach does not fully reflect realities on the ground. Cooperation procedures and institutional mechanisms that have been established among riparian States of international waters have illustrated that cooperation, rather than conflict, is the preferred approach in most cases.The proposed research project will focus precisely on this cooperation with the objective to identify new trends in the design of legal procedures and institutional frameworks for cooperation. In particular, it will analyze the contribution of international law to State cooperation on transboundary freshwater resources. This is a novel approach not only with respect to literature on future transboundary water challenges in general, but also with respect to literature on the law of transboundary water resources. The features of cooperation on transboundary freshwater systems have not yet been studied carefully and systematically from an international law perspective. Yet, there is a need for this kind of analysis. Public interest in expertise on sustainable development and peaceful governance of transboundary freshwater resources is growing amid concerns over the impacts of climate change and water scarcity on humans and the ecosystem. The interest of researchers to explore this topic from a legal perspective is picking up. The proposed project intends to respond to these developments and nurture the reflection. Today, only a small number of international lawyers concern themselves with the law applicable to transboundary freshwater resources. This project will contribute to the strengthening of existing expertise and the development of new expertise by, among other, giving young researchers the opportunity to specialize in this area and by generating and promoting the dissemination of new knowledge.International law has played and continues to play an important role in establishing institutional frameworks and in continuously developing new procedures for cooperation on transboundary water systems. The proposed research project will analyze this role under two research components. The first component will identify existing principles and norms of cooperation, such as obligations of mutual information exchange, consultation and negotiation, as well as their limitations. It will also analyze trends in the development of new norms and practices. The second component will explore the role of international law in establishing institutional frameworks that promote cooperation, and the adequacy of different framework structures to carry out this function. In addition, the second component will analyze the dynamics of institutional adaptation to new challenges; that is the adoption of new procedures and mechanisms and the transformation of institutions themselves.