Human exposure; Pesticides; Plant upatake; Occupational exposure
Mosquera-Vivas Carmen Stella, Hansen Eddy Walther, García-Santos Glenda, Obregón-Neira Nelson, Celis-Ossa Raul Ernesto, González-Murillo Carlos Alberto, Juraske Ronnie, Hellweg Stefanie, Guerrero-Dallos Jairo Arturo (2016), The Effect of the Soil Properties on Adsorption, Single-Point Desorption, and Degradation of Chlorpyrifos in Two Agricultural Soil Profiles From Colombia, in Soil Science
Mosquera-Vivas Carmen S., Obregon-Neira Nelson, Celiss-Ossa Raúl E., Guerrero-Dallos Jairo A., González-Murillo Carlos A. (2016), Degradation and thermodynamic adsorption process of carbofuran and oxadicyl in a Colombian agricultural soil profile, in Agronomía Colombiana
, 34(1), 92-100.
Fabian Camilo, Binder Claudia (2015), Dermal Exposure Assessment to Pesticides in Farming Systems in Developing Countries: Comparison of Models, in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
, 12(5), 4670-4696.
Fabian Camilo Lesmes, Teubl Silvia, Binder Claudia R (2014), Evaluation of models for dermal exposure assessment in farming systems in developing countries, in journal of Environmental Engineering and Ecological Science
, 3(1), 1-1.
Lesmes-Fabian Camillo, Binder Claudia (2013), Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia, in nt. J. Environ. Res. Public Health
, 10(4), 1168-1185.
Lesmes-Fabian Camilo, García-Santos Glenda, Leuenberger Fanny, Nuyttens David, Binder Claudia R, Dermal exposure assessment of pesticide use: The case of sprayers in potato farms in the Colombian highlands., in The Science of the Total Environment
, 430, 202-8.
Juraske Ronnie, Fantke Peter, Romero Ramírez Ana Cecilia, González Alonso, Pesticide residue dynamics in passion fruits: Comparing field trial, in Chemosphere
, 89(7), 850-855.
Juraske R, Vivas CSM, Velasquez AE, Santos GG, Moreno MBB, Gomez JD, Binder CR, Hellweg S, Dallos JAG, Pesticide Uptake in Potatoes: Model and Field Experiments, in ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
, 45(2), 651-657.
Garcia-Santos Glenda, The weight method: a new screening method for estimating pesticide deposition from knapsack sprayers in developing countries, in Chemosphere
, 82(11), 1571-1577.
Although the human health effects of pesticides have decreased significantly in industrialized countries, misuse of pesticides in developing countries is still problematic. Chronic health problems and environmental impacts have not been well investigated and are likely to be significant. For example, the WHO estimated that about 3 million cases of acute pesticide poisoning, causing 220,000 deaths, occurred in 1990. Possible factors contributing to these effects include the application of old products with high persistence and toxicity and missing or insufficient protection of workers during pesticide application and use. Because a significant portion of the crops imported into Switzerland come from developing countries, responsible consumers and authorities in the exporting and importing countries are interested in understanding and ultimately mitigating the life-cycle environmental and health impacts of these products.In this study we intend to examine the various exposure pathways of pesticide application, over the whole life cycle of a variety of agricultural products grown in Colombia. Colombia was chosen as a partner country because a large variety of crops is grown there on various altitude levels. This allows for a broad study which is indicative also for other countries in the region. In particular, we intend to look at bananas, coffee, flowers, potatoes and sugar cane. These crops cover a wide range of uses, from food to decoration to biofuels. They can be consumed locally, like potatoes, or exported in large quantities to industrialized countries, such as coffee, bananas, and flowers. With regard to the latter products, the importing country imports a "virtual burden" in terms of human exposure in the country of origin. Thus, it is one of the goals of this project to account for indirect exposure, such as workers' exposure during pesticide application or population exposure through groundwater contamination, in addition to direct consumer exposure by ingestion of the pesticide-treated crops or by dermal contact. In order to quantify exposure, thorough experimental analysis will be conducted at selected field sites and existing exposure models will be adapted and applied to Colombian conditions. Human intake of pesticides by inhalation, ingestion and dermal exposure will be quantified throughout the life cycle of each agricultural product, thus allowing for the identification of "hot spots" and for identifying measures to mitigate exposure. Comparison of exposure concentrations to thresholds and no-effect levels will allow for the quantification of risk. In addition to practical decision support concerning the most relevant sources and exposure pathways and their mitigation, this study will contribute to capacity building in Colombia. All research will be conducted in close collaboration between the complementary Colombian and Swiss partners, and the results are intended to be disseminated widely among various stakeholder groups, including authorities and producers in the "South" as well as retailers and consumers in the "North". This project will be a model case for other countries in South and Central America with similar agricultural production schemes.