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Landless Pastoralists - A Transhumant System Under Siege in the Hindu-kush-Himalayan Mountains: livelihood options for marginalised populations

English title Landless Pastoralists - A Transhumant System Under Siege in the Hindu-kush-Himalayan Mountains: livelihood options for marginalised populations
Applicant Wiesmann Urs
Number 123894
Funding scheme Resource not found: 'bd31932a-e257-46d9-9dba-079f6f2c77c6'
Research institution Zentrum für Entwicklung und Umwelt Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Other disciplines of Environmental Sciences
Start/End 01.04.2009 - 30.09.2012
Approved amount 520'000.00
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Keywords (7)

Landless mobile herders; socio-economic; Landuse and tenure; Hindukush- Himalaya; Northern Pakistan; Grazing; Livestock

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
In the North West Frontier Province in Pakistan (NWFP) conditions for irrigated agriculture and cropping are difficult due to a dominantly mountainous terrain. The majority of the territory can thus only be used extensively through different migratory livestock production systems. Among them the traditional long distance landless herder (LDLH) system has in the recent past been affected by a range of processes leading to a siege-like situation. Rapid population growth has led to the expansion of cultivated and constructed land on the expense of key pasture areas. The difficult access to social services such as veterinary, health, education and legal services has further increased the marginalization of the LDLH compared to sedentary farmers. In addition the national policies and the prevailing legal framework are favouring landowners while exclud-ing LDLH. Moreover, the local conservationist lobby - in particular the forest department - has managed to attract powerful international donors to promote the cause of bio-diversity conserva-tion through aforestation and so-called 'social forestry programs'. By declaring the grazing land used by the LDLH as forestable land, the LDLH are the first to be expulsed. Many well-intended development projects have thus had highly negative impacts on this population group making it ultimately an easy prey for fundamentalists. So far neither the land use system of LDLH nor the above described problematic has been inves-tigated in more details despite the fact that the LDLH account for about twenty percent of the local rural population. The main cause for this surprising situation may be found in the difficulty to communicate with people who are constantly on the move without having a voice. Therefore we propose to assess the current situation of LDLH by focusing on issues related to their mobil-ity, the condition of pastures, and the access to social services using a variety of methods and a strong participatory approach. Based on the gained improved understanding, options, opportuni-ties and recommendations will be identified and jointly discussed with the various stakeholder groups in multi-level multi-stakeholder dialogues. The principle assumption of the project is, that by involving the mobile herders as the real future managers of the pastures not only the ecologic environment can be improved but also the socio-economic conditions which shape the livelihoods of the LDLH. Ultimately this may help in reducing the potential for violent conflicts among the local population in an area which is already suffering from different internal and external inter-ventions fuelling violence.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Landless Mobile Pastoralists. Securing their Role as Custodians of Northern Pakistan’s Mountains. Proceedings - Regional Workshop, Islamabad, 24-26 April 2012
Rahim Inam, Syed Iqmail Shah, Rueff Henri, Maselli Daniel (2012), Landless Mobile Pastoralists. Securing their Role as Custodians of Northern Pakistan’s Mountains. Proceedings - Regional Workshop, Islamabad, 24-26 April 2012, Centre for Development and Environment , Bern.
Lessons from community-based payment for ecosystem service schemes: from forests to rangelands
Dougill Andrew, Stringer Lindsay, Leventon Julia, Ridell Mike, Rueff Henri, Spracklen Dominik, Butt Edward (2012), Lessons from community-based payment for ecosystem service schemes: from forests to rangelands, in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 367(1606), 3178-3190.
Challenges and opportunities in linking carbon sequestration, livelihoods, and ecosystem service provision in drylands
Stringer Lindsay, Dougill Andrew, Thomas Andrew, Spracklen Dominik, Chesterman Susan, Ifejika Speranza Chinwe, Rueff Henri, Ridell Mike, Williams M, Beedy Tracy, Abson D, Klintenberg Patrik, Syampungani S, Powell P, Palmer A, Seely Mary, Mkwambisi D, Falcao M, Sitoe A, Ross S, Kopolo Goodspeed (2012), Challenges and opportunities in linking carbon sequestration, livelihoods, and ecosystem service provision in drylands, in Environmental Science and Policy, 19(20), 121-135.
Sustaining mobile pastoralists in the mountains of northern Pakistan
Ojeda Gabriel, Rueff Henri, Rahim Inam (2012), Sustaining mobile pastoralists in the mountains of northern Pakistan.
Can carbon finance enhance desert afforestation and serve smallholders' needs?
Rueff Henri, Schwartz Moshe (2012), Can carbon finance enhance desert afforestation and serve smallholders' needs?, in Mol Lisa, Sternberg Troy (ed.), The White Horse Press, Isle of Harris, xxx-xxx.
Effect of management on reproductive performances of the Achai cattle in the Hindu Kush (Northern Pakistan)
Saleem Mohammad, Rahim Inam, Rueff Henri, Khan Momen, Maselli Daniel, Wiesmann Urs (2012), Effect of management on reproductive performances of the Achai cattle in the Hindu Kush (Northern Pakistan), in Tropical Animal Health and Production, 44(6), 1297-1302.
Conserving indigenous animal genetic resources as a coping strategy to adapt to climate change: the Azikheli Buffalo in Northern Mountains of Pakistan
Khan Momen, Rahim Inam, Rueff Henri, Saleem Mohammad, Maselli Daniel, Mohammad Sher, Wiesmann Urs (2011), Conserving indigenous animal genetic resources as a coping strategy to adapt to climate change: the Azikheli Buffalo in Northern Mountains of Pakistan, in Livestock Research for Rural Development, 23(12), none-none.
Indigenous fodder trees can increase grazing accessibility for landless and mobile pastoralists in northern Pakistan
Rahim Inam, Maselli Daniel, Rueff Henri, Wiesmann Urs, Mohammad Sher (2011), Indigenous fodder trees can increase grazing accessibility for landless and mobile pastoralists in northern Pakistan, in Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, 1(2), none-none.
Mountain cattle breed for coping with climate change: needs for conserving and reintroducing the Achai in the Hindu Kush Mountains of Northern Pakistan
Saleem Mohammad, Rahim Inam, Rueff Henri, Khan Momen, Maselli Daniel, Wiesmann Urs (2010), Mountain cattle breed for coping with climate change: needs for conserving and reintroducing the Achai in the Hindu Kush Mountains of Northern Pakistan, in Tropentag 2010: Conference on International Research on Food Security, Natural Resource Management a, ETH, Zurich.
Carbon finance and dryland afforestation
Rueff Henri, Rahim Daniel (2010), Carbon finance and dryland afforestation.
Morphological characterization of the Achai cattle breed under sedentary and transhumant farming system
Saleem Mohammad, Rahim Inam, Jalali S, Rueff Henri, Khan Momen, Maselii Daniel, Wiesmann Urs, Mohammad Sher, Morphological characterization of the Achai cattle breed under sedentary and transhumant farming system, in Animal Genetic Resources.
Morphological characterization of the Azikheli buffalo
Khan Momen, Rahim Inam, Rueff Henri, Jalali S, Saleem Mohammad, Maselli Daniel, Mohammad Sher, Wiesmann Urs, Morphological characterization of the Azikheli buffalo, in Animal Genetic Resources.
Mountain pastoralism, green economy, sustainable development and poverty
Rueff Henri, Rahim Inam, Maselli Daniel, Mountain pastoralism, green economy, sustainable development and poverty, in Kohler (ed.).

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Khan Momen, Department of Livestock and Dairy Development Pakistan (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Dr. Ashraf Mughal, Senior Research Officer, Livestock Res Center, Univ of Vet & Anim Sci, Lahore Pakistan (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. Dr. Mohammad Amjad, Faculty of Anim Husbandry, NWFP Agri Univ Peshawar Pakistan (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Sher Mohammad, Department of Livestock and Dairy Development Pakistan (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
- Exchange of personnel
Iqmail Hussain Shah, Project Coordinator, Project for Mountain Areas Conservation, NWFP Pakistan (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
Saleem Mohammad, Department of Livestock and Dairy Development Pakistan (Asia)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Exchange of personnel

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
The 1st International Conference on Animal Nutrition and Environment 14.09.2012 Khon Kaen, Thailand
4th International Disaster Risk Conference 26.08.2012 Davos, Switzerland
3rd International Conference on Research for Development (ICRD 2012) Research for Global Transformation 20.08.2012 Bern, Switzerland
2nd Oxford Interdisciplinary Desert Conference 26.03.2012 Oxford, United Kingdom
2nd World Landslide Forum 03.10.2011 Rome, Italy
3rd International Conference on Sustainable Animal Agriculture for Developing Countries 26.07.2011 Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Forests and water in drylands: a virtuous cycle, Information exchange from the Mediterranean to Central Asia 07.07.2011 Geneva, Switzerland
WOCAT Share-Fair and 15th Annual Workshop 21.06.2011 Bishkek, Kzrgyzstan
Pastoralism in Central Asia: Status, Challenges and Opportunities in Mountain Areas 13.06.2011 Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
Drylands, Deserts and Desertification. The Route to Restoration Conference 08.11.2010 Sde Boqer, Israel
Managing Land for Carbon Workshop 29.10.2010 Gobabeb, Namibia
Regional workshop on Pastoralism and Range Management on Tibetan Plateau in the context of climate and global change 21.10.2010 Lhasa, China
Tropentag 2010: World food system – A contribution from Europe 14.09.2010 Zurich, Switzerland
Global Change and the World's Mountains 06.09.2010 Perth, United Kingdom
NCCR North-South – University of Central Asia, open day 23.04.2010 Dushanbe, Tajikistan


Self-organised

Title Date Place

Knowledge transfer events



Self-organised

Title Date Place

Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Media relations: print media, online media Landless mobile pastoralists (Ajars) step out of the shadows Press release for pakistan written and broadcasted press International 26.04.2012

Use-inspired outputs


Start-ups

Name Year
Pastoralism unit at the ministry of agriculture 2012
University of Peshawar to establish Centre of Pasture Study 2012

Abstract

In the North West Frontier Province in Pakistan (NWFP) conditions for irrigated agriculture and cropping are difficult due to a dominantly mountainous terrain. The majority of the territory can thus only be used extensively through different migratory livestock production systems. Among them the traditional long distance landless herder (LDLH) system has in the recent past been affected by a range of processes leading to a siege-like situation. Rapid population growth has led to the expansion of cultivated and constructed land on the expense of key pasture areas. The difficult access to social services such as veterinary, health, education and legal services has further increased the marginalization of the LDLH compared to sedentary farmers. In addition the national policies and the prevailing legal framework are favouring landowners while exclud-ing LDLH. Moreover, the local conservationist lobby - in particular the forest department - has managed to attract powerful international donors to promote the cause of bio-diversity conserva-tion through aforestation and so-called ‘social forestry programs’. By declaring the grazing land used by the LDLH as forestable land, the LDLH are the first to be expulsed. Many well-intended development projects have thus had highly negative impacts on this population group making it ultimately an easy prey for fundamentalists.So far neither the land use system of LDLH nor the above described problematic has been inves-tigated in more details despite the fact that the LDLH account for about twenty percent of the local rural population. The main cause for this surprising situation may be found in the difficulty to communicate with people who are constantly on the move without having a voice. Therefore we propose to assess the current situation of LDLH by focusing on issues related to their mobil-ity, the condition of pastures, and the access to social services using a variety of methods and a strong participatory approach. Based on the gained improved understanding, options, opportuni-ties and recommendations will be identified and jointly discussed with the various stakeholder groups in multi-level multi-stakeholder dialogues. The principle assumption of the project is, that by involving the mobile herders as the real future managers of the pastures not only the ecologic environment can be improved but also the socio-economic conditions which shape the livelihoods of the LDLH. Ultimately this may help in reducing the potential for violent conflicts among the local population in an area which is already suffering from different internal and external inter-ventions fuelling violence.
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