Projekt

Zurück zur Übersicht

Symbiont-mediated coevolution in an insect host-parasitoid system

Titel Englisch Symbiont-mediated coevolution in an insect host-parasitoid system
Gesuchsteller/in Vorburger Christoph
Nummer 123376
Förderungsinstrument SNF-Förderungsprofessuren
Forschungseinrichtung Institut für Integrative Biologie Departement Umweltwissenschaften ETHZ
Hochschule ETH Zürich - ETHZ
Hauptdisziplin Oekologie
Beginn/Ende 01.10.2009 - 30.09.2013
Bewilligter Betrag 1'364'991.00
Alle Daten anzeigen

Keywords (17)

Antagonistic coevolution; aphids; Aphis fabae; clones; endosymbionts; experimental evolution; Hamiltonella defensa; local adaptation; Lysiphlebus fabarum; parasitoids; resistance; thelytoky; biological control; coevolution; infection; parthenogenesis; symbiosis

Lay Summary (Englisch)

Lead
Lay summary
Hosts and parasites are engaged in a continuous arms race of adaptation and counter-adaptation. This process is termed 'antagonistic coevolution', and it may be the driving force behind many important evolutionary phenomena, including the maintenance of genetic variation, or even sex. Selection is particularly strong between hosts and so-called parasitoids, which are parasitic insects whose larvae feed in or on the bodies of other arthropods and eventually kill them. Such interactions are always a matter of life or death. Parasitoids only survive if they can overcome the host's defences; hosts are invariably killed if their defences fail. A classical example are aphids and parasitic wasps of the subfamily Aphidiinae. These parasitoids are important natural enemies of aphids and are successfully employed for biological control of pest aphids. It was found recently that in this interaction, the aphids rely on helpers in the form of endosymbiotic bacteria for defence. These bacteria not only provide protection against parasitoids, they also change the specificity of the aphid-parasitoid interaction. This challenges existing models of host-parasite coevolution that ignore any mediating effects of symbionts. The proposed project will therefore develop new models to derive predictions on how symbionts modify the coevolution between hosts and parasitoids, and it will study this process empirically from the level of individual genotypes up to the level of the biological community, using the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, and its parasitoid Lysiphlebus fabarum as a model. Among other things, we will use experimental evolution to understand how parasitoids adapt to the presence of protective symbionts in their hosts, and we will test whether such adaptation does indeed occur in the field. We hope that apart from improving our conceptual understanding of host-parasite coevolution, this project will also yield applied benefits, because it is clear that protective symbionts of aphids can seriously compromise the present practice of biological control.


Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 21.02.2013

Verantw. Gesuchsteller/in und weitere Gesuchstellende

Mitarbeitende

Publikationen

Publikation
Bacterial endosymbionts protect aphids in the field and alter parasitoid community composition
Rothacher Lukas, Ferrer-Suay Mar, Vorburger Christoph (2016), Bacterial endosymbionts protect aphids in the field and alter parasitoid community composition, in ECOLOGY, 97(7), 1712-1723.
Cheaper is not always worse: strongly protective isolates of a defensive symbiont are less costly to the aphid host.
Cayetano Luis, Rothacher Lukas, Simon Jean-Christophe, Vorburger Christoph (2015), Cheaper is not always worse: strongly protective isolates of a defensive symbiont are less costly to the aphid host., in Proceedings. Biological sciences, 282(1799), 20142333-20142333.
Symbiont-conferred protection against Hymenopteran parasitoids in aphids: how general is it?
Cayetano Luis, Vorburger Christoph (2015), Symbiont-conferred protection against Hymenopteran parasitoids in aphids: how general is it?, in ECOLOGICAL ENTOMOLOGY, 40(1), 85-93.
Biased Transmission of Sex Chromosomes in the Aphid Myzus persicae Is Not Associated with Reproductive Mode
Wilson Alex C. C., Delgado Ryan N., Vorburger Christoph (2014), Biased Transmission of Sex Chromosomes in the Aphid Myzus persicae Is Not Associated with Reproductive Mode, in PLOS ONE, 9(12), e0118524.
The evolutionary ecology of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids.
Vorburger Christoph (2014), The evolutionary ecology of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids., in Insect science, 21(3), 251-64.
Thelytoky and sex determination in the hymenoptera: mutual constraints.
Vorburger C (2014), Thelytoky and sex determination in the hymenoptera: mutual constraints., in Sexual development : genetics, molecular biology, evolution, endocrinology, embryology, and patholog, 8(1-3), 50-8.
Comparing constitutive and induced costs of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids
Vorburger Christoph, Ganesanandamoorthy Pravin, Kwiatkowski Marek (2013), Comparing constitutive and induced costs of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids, in ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION, 3(3), 706-713.
Effects of heat shock on resistance to parasitoids and on life history traits in an aphid/endosymbiont system
Cayetano Luis, Vorburger Christoph (2013), Effects of heat shock on resistance to parasitoids and on life history traits in an aphid/endosymbiont system, in PLoS One, 8, e75966.
Genotype-by-genotype specificity remains robust to average temperature variation in an aphid/endosymbiont/parasitoid system
Cayetano L., Vorburger C. (2013), Genotype-by-genotype specificity remains robust to average temperature variation in an aphid/endosymbiont/parasitoid system, in JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, 26(7), 1603-1610.
Host specialization of parasitoids and their hyperparasitoids on a pair of syntopic aphid species
Schar Sami, Vorburger Christoph (2013), Host specialization of parasitoids and their hyperparasitoids on a pair of syntopic aphid species, in BULLETIN OF ENTOMOLOGICAL RESEARCH, 103(5), 530-537.
Influence of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth of Aphis gossypii Glover
Razmjou J, Vorburger C, Mohammadi M, Hassanpour M (2012), Influence of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth of Aphis gossypii Glover, in JOURNAL OF APPLIED ENTOMOLOGY, 136(8), 568-575.
Modeling the Ecology of Symbiont-Mediated Protection against Parasites
Kwiatkowski M, Vorburger C (2012), Modeling the Ecology of Symbiont-Mediated Protection against Parasites, in AMERICAN NATURALIST, 179(5), 595-605.
On Genetic Specificity in Symbiont-Mediated Host-Parasite Coevolution
Kwiatkowski M, Engelstadter J, Vorburger C (2012), On Genetic Specificity in Symbiont-Mediated Host-Parasite Coevolution, in PLOS COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY, 8(8), e1002633-e1002633.
Parasitoids as vectors of facultative bacterial endosymbionts in aphids
Gehrer L, Vorburger C (2012), Parasitoids as vectors of facultative bacterial endosymbionts in aphids, in BIOLOGY LETTERS, 8(4), 613-615.
Strong specificity in the interaction between parasitoids and symbiont-protected hosts
Rouchet R., Vorburger C. (2012), Strong specificity in the interaction between parasitoids and symbiont-protected hosts, in JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, 25(11), 2369-2375.
Climate effects on life cycle variation and population genetic architecture of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae
Sandrock C, Razmjou J, Vorburger C (2011), Climate effects on life cycle variation and population genetic architecture of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, in Molecular Ecology, 20(19), 4165-4181.
Contagious parthenogenesis, automixis, and a sex determination meltdown
Engelstädter J, Sandrock C, Vorburger C (2011), Contagious parthenogenesis, automixis, and a sex determination meltdown, in Evolution, 65(2), 501-511.
Evolution of reproductive mode variation and host associations in a sexual-asexual complex of aphid parasitoids
Sandrock C, Schirrmeister BE, Vorburger C (2011), Evolution of reproductive mode variation and host associations in a sexual-asexual complex of aphid parasitoids, in BMC EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, 11, 348-348.
Genomic basis of endosymbiont-conferred protection against an insect parasitoid.
Hansen Allison K, Vorburger Christoph, Moran Nancy A (2011), Genomic basis of endosymbiont-conferred protection against an insect parasitoid., in Genome research, 22, 106-114.
Only helpful when required: A longevity cost of harbouring defensive symbionts
Vorburger C, Gouskov A (2011), Only helpful when required: A longevity cost of harbouring defensive symbionts, in Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 24(7), 1611-1617.
Single-Locus Recessive Inheritance of Asexual Reproduction in a Parasitoid Wasp
Sandrock C, Vorburger C (2011), Single-Locus Recessive Inheritance of Asexual Reproduction in a Parasitoid Wasp, in CURRENT BIOLOGY, 21(5), 433-437.
Versteckte Helfer: Symbionten und ihr Einfluss auf Wirt-Parasit-Beziehungen bei Insekten
Vorburger Christoph (2011), Versteckte Helfer: Symbionten und ihr Einfluss auf Wirt-Parasit-Beziehungen bei Insekten, in Vierteljahresschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zürich, 156(3/4), 89-97.
A strain of the bacterial symbiont Regiella insecticola protects aphids against parasitoids
Vorburger C, Gehrer L, Rodriguez P (2010), A strain of the bacterial symbiont Regiella insecticola protects aphids against parasitoids, in Biology Letters, 6(1), 109-111.
Ample genetic variation but no evidence for genotype specificity in an all-parthenogenetic host-parasitoid interaction
Sandrock C, Gouskov A, Vorburger C (2010), Ample genetic variation but no evidence for genotype specificity in an all-parthenogenetic host-parasitoid interaction, in Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 23(3), 578-585.
Host genotype affects the relative success of competing lines of aphid parasitoids under superparasitism
Vorburger C, Eugster B, Villiger J, Wimmer C (2010), Host genotype affects the relative success of competing lines of aphid parasitoids under superparasitism, in Ecological Entomology, 35(1), 77-83.
Host-associated differentiation and evidence for sexual reproduction in Iranian populations of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii
Razmjou J, Vorburger C, Moharramipour S, Mirhoseini SZ, Fathipour Y (2010), Host-associated differentiation and evidence for sexual reproduction in Iranian populations of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, in ENTOMOLOGIA EXPERIMENTALIS ET APPLICATA, 134(2), 191-199.
Variation and covariation of life history traits in aphids are related to infection with the facultative bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa
Castañeda LE, Sandrock C, Vorburger C (2010), Variation and covariation of life history traits in aphids are related to infection with the facultative bacterial endosymbiont Hamiltonella defensa, in Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 100(1), 237-247.
Aphid genotypes vary in their response to the presence of fungal endosymbionts in host plants
Bieri APS, HÄrri SA, Vorburger C, MÜller CB (2009), Aphid genotypes vary in their response to the presence of fungal endosymbionts in host plants, in Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 22(8), 1775-1780.
Genotypic variation and the role of defensive endosymbionts in an all-parthenogenetic host-parasitoid interaction
Vorburger C, Sandrock C, Gouskov A, Castañeda LE, Ferrari J (2009), Genotypic variation and the role of defensive endosymbionts in an all-parthenogenetic host-parasitoid interaction, in Evolution, 63(6), 1439-1450.
Development, specificity and sublethal effects of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids
Schmid M, Sieber R, Zimmermann Y-S, Vorburger C, Development, specificity and sublethal effects of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids, in Functional Ecology.

Zusammenarbeit

Gruppe / Person Land
Formen der Zusammenarbeit
Yale University Vereinigte Staaten von Amerika (Nordamerika)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
INRA & University of Rennes Frankreich (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation
University of Ardabil Iran (Asien)
- Publikation
University of Belgrade Serbien (Europa)
- vertiefter/weiterführender Austausch von Ansätzen, Methoden oder Resultaten
- Publikation

Wissenschaftliche Veranstaltungen

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
International Symposium Ecology of Aphidophaga 12 Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids - implications for biological control 09.09.2013 Belgrade, Serbien Vorburger Christoph;
14th Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Symbiont-mediated coevolution between aphid hosts and parasitoids 19.08.2013 Lisbon, Portugal Vorburger Christoph;
9th International Symposium on Aphids Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung The evolutionary ecology of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids 02.06.2013 Beijing, China Vorburger Christoph;
1st joint Congress on Evolutionary Biology Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung On genetic specificity in symbiont-mediated host-parasite coevolution 06.07.2012 Ottawa, Kanada Kwiatkowski Marek; Vorburger Christoph;
1st joint Congress on Evolutionary Biology Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Gene-by-gene interactions in the context of average temperature, heat shock and resistance against parasitoids in an aphid/endosymbiont system 06.07.2012 Ottawa, Kanada Cayetano Simmari Luis Eduardo; Vorburger Christoph;
Summit meeting EU COST Action "Arthropod symbiosis: from fundamental studies to pest and disease management) Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Symbionts mediate coevolution between aphid hosts and parasitoids 11.06.2012 St. Pierre d'Oleron, Frankreich Vorburger Christoph;
Réunion REID (Réseau écologie des interactions durables CNRS/INRA) Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Influential passengers: Symbionts mediate coevolution between insect hosts and parasitoids 06.02.2012 Rennes, Frankreich Vorburger Christoph;
Mathematical Models in Ecology and Evolution 2011 Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Modelling the ecology of symbiont-mediated protection against parasites 26.08.2011 Groningen, Niederlande Vorburger Christoph; Kwiatkowski Marek;
13th Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology Poster Specificity, costs and benefits of symbiont-conferred resistance to parasitoids in aphids 20.08.2011 Tübingen, Deutschland Vorburger Christoph;
International Symposium Ecology of Aphidophaga 11 Vortrag im Rahmen einer Tagung Influential passengers: Symbionts mediate coevolution between aphid hosts and parasitoids 19.09.2010 Perugia, Italien Vorburger Christoph;


Kommunikation mit der Öffentlichkeit

Kommunikation Titel Medien Ort Jahr
Referate/Veranstaltungen/Ausstellungen Versteckte Helfer: Symbionten un ihr Einfluss auf Wirt-Parasit Beziehungen Deutschschweiz 2010

Verbundene Projekte

Nummer Titel Start Förderungsinstrument
121961 Host-parasitoid coevolution: The role of parasitoid adaptation to endosymbiont-mediated defence in aphids 01.02.2009 Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
146341 Symbiont-mediated coevolution in an insect host-parasitoid system 01.10.2013 SNF-Förderungsprofessuren

Abstract

Antagonistic coevolution between hosts and parasites may result in open-ended cycles of adaptation and counter-adaptation. These genetic dynamics have been suggested to be a driving force behind many important evolutionary phenomena, in particular the maintenance of genetic variation, or even sex. Reciprocal selection is particularly strong in insect host-parasitoid systems because these are a matter of life or death. Parasitoids only survive if they can overcome host defences; hosts are invariably killed if their defences fail. It was recently discovered in aphids that some genotypes rely on 'helpers' in the form of facultative endosymbiotic bacteria for defence against their hymenopteran parasitoids. One of these symbionts, aptly named Hamiltonella defensa, can provide very strong protection against parasitoid wasps. Presumably, parasitoids succumb to toxins encoded by a bacteriophage within the H. defensa genome. These are fascinating discoveries and they challenge existing models of host-parasitoid coevolution. While there is a solid theoretical framework of host-parasitoid coevolution between two species based on interaction loci, we lack such a framework for symbiont-mediated coevolution. Empirically, the interaction between aphids and their facultative endosymbionts is currently under intensive investigation, but the role of parasitoids is largely ignored or at best treated as a constant. However, just as parasitoids select for improved defences in hosts, the host's acquisition of defensive endosymbionts selects for counterdefences in parasitoids. Therefore, I propose a project to clear these deficiencies. We will develop models describing the expected dynamics of such symbiont-mediated coevolution and empirically examine this process from the level of individual genotypes up to the level of the biological community, using the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, and its parasitoid Lysiphlebus fabarum as a study system. The project builds on our ongoing work on this recently established study system, which we chose because uniquely among aphid parasitoids, L. fabarum occurs in arrhenotokous (sexual) as well as thelytokous (parthenogenetic) populations. This offers exciting opportunities for experimentation. Thelytoky allows us to extract individual parasitoid genotypes from the field and faithfully replicate them in the lab, while arrhenotoky makes the system amenable for the powerful approaches of artificial selection and experimental evolution. Our previous work has shown that, just like the pea aphid, in which this association was first described, A. fabae may be infected with H. defensa and thereby enjoy strong protection against L. fabarum. We also found that the rate of infection with H. defensa varies geographically, and that different genotypes of L. fabarum vary in their ability to parasitize H. defensa-bearing aphids. These findings indicate that L. fabarum is under selection and does have the potential to adapt to the presence of H. defensa in its host, yet the process is entirely unstudied so far.The project consists of five parts. In the first part, we will develop new models to derive the expected frequency of defensive symbionts in host populations and to evaluate their effect on reciprocal selection between hosts and parasitoids. In the second part, we will test in the field whether parasitoids are locally adapted to endosymbiont-conferred resistance, and we will use an experimental evolution approach to assess the potential of parasitoids to adapt to defensive symbionts, and analyse correlated responses that might constrain such adaptation. The third and fourth parts are concerned with effects of the biotic and abiotic environment on our host-parasitoid system. We will test if high temperatures might interfere with bacterial protection, and we will assess how the community context, i.e. the availability of alternative hosts or parasitoids, respectively, affects reciprocal selection between A. fabae and L. fabarum. Finally, we will test whether ectoparasitic mites may act as vectors of bacterial endosymbionts in aphids, a yet undescribed route of horizontal transmission. This is important because the ease of horizontal transmission is a key element in this system. It determines whether selection by parasitoids may lead to the rapid spread of endosymbionts among previously uninfected hosts or whether it primarily favours clones already associated with endosymbionts.This project will contribute novel models of host-parasite coevolution that explicitly account for resistance provided by defensive symbionts, and it will be the first to empirically study parasitoid adaptation to defensive symbionts in hosts. It will thus represent an important step towards a better understanding of host-parasite coevolution. I also expect this work to yield applied benefits, because aphid parasitoids are frequently used for biological control of pest aphids. It is now clear that aphid infection with defensive symbionts can seriously compromise the efficiency of biocontrol. This could be avoided if it was possible to improve the parasitoids' counterdefences by artificial selection. The project will show whether this is a viable strategy.
-