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Virulence, host preferences and life-history traits in a natural population of great tits infected with malaria

Gesuchsteller/in Christe Philippe
Nummer 120479
Förderungsinstrument Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
Forschungseinrichtung Département d'Ecologie et d'Evolution Faculté de Biologie et de Médecine Université de Lausanne
Hochschule Universität Lausanne - LA
Hauptdisziplin Zoologie
Beginn/Ende 01.09.2008 - 31.12.2011
Bewilligter Betrag 335'168.00
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Keywords (9)

malaria; vector; mosquitoes; immune defence; attractiveness; life-history traits; qPCR; Parus major; Culex pipiens

Lay Summary (Englisch)

Lead
Lay summary
Host-parasite interactions represent one of the most promising routes for the understanding of general evolutionary processes. Studies involving closely related parasite species that parasitized a same host species may provide insights into detailed mechanisms of coevolution between host defences, parasite virulence and vector role and are thus of particular interest. Although avian malaria is a very common and widely distributed parasite, the complex interactions between the three actors of this bird-mosquito-Plasmodium system remain largely unknown. Recently, the development of molecular genetic screening techniques has revealed higher diversity and prevalence of avian malaria than previously thought. Moreover the development of real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowed the quantification of parasitaemia and opened new fascinating field of investigations in this host-parasite system. Despite the growing interest in avian malaria in evolutionary biology, the role played by the vector in this relationship remains to be investigated.This project focuses on avian malaria in the great tit Parus major and its natural mosquito vector, Culex pipiens, looking at different aspects of interactions between parasites and hosts (virulence and immune response) and between parasites and vectors (life-history traits and host selection). Previous work in our study populations has revealed a very high prevalence (more than 95%) of different Plasmodium lineages and low prevalence of Haemoproteus infecting great tits. Culex pipiens appears to be the only vector for Plasmodium in these populations, with a rather high prevalence of the parasite among females (between 5 and 12%).Specifically, we will first perform a series of field and lab experiments in order to:a) Test if Plasmodium infection decreases the ability to mount an immune response against a novel antigen (Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin injection). b) Investigate in laboratory conditions if there is competition between two Plasmodium lineages within single bird host.In the second part, we will focus on different aspects of interactions between Plasmodium and mosquitoes. With a series of lab experiments we will:c) Test if mosquitoes are able to discriminate between healthy and infected hosts. d) Test if potential discrimination ability is modified by the parasite in the vector itself. e) Investigate the costs imposed by Plasmodium on mosquitoes by comparing life history parameters between experimentally infected and non-infected mosquitoes.Overall, we expect that these experiments will not only reveal little known connections between infection status and host preference, but also uncover part of the complex interactions and constraints affecting the relationship between hosts, vectors and parasites in a natural avian malaria model. The results obtained will then contribute to the general knowledge on malaria, one of the most serious vector-borne diseases worldwide.
Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 21.02.2013

Verantw. Gesuchsteller/in und weitere Gesuchstellende

Mitarbeitende

Publikationen

Publikation
Twofold cost of reproduction: an increase in parental effort leads to higher malarial parasitaemia and to a decrease in resistance to oxidative stress
Christe Philippe Glaizot Olivier Strepparava Nicole Devevey Godefroy and Fumagalli Luca (2012), Twofold cost of reproduction: an increase in parental effort leads to higher malarial parasitaemia and to a decrease in resistance to oxidative stress, in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279, 1142-1149.
Disease in the dark: molecular characterization of Polychromophilus murinus in temperate zone bats revealed a worldwide distribution of this malaria-like disease
Megali Audrey Yannic Glenn & Christe Philippe, Disease in the dark: molecular characterization of Polychromophilus murinus in temperate zone bats revealed a worldwide distribution of this malaria-like disease, in Molecular Ecology, 20, 1039-1048.
Mites as biological tags of their hosts
Bruyndonckx Nadia Biollaz François Dubey Sylvain Goudet Jérôme and Christe Philippe, Mites as biological tags of their hosts, in Molecular Ecology, 19, 2770-2778.

Wissenschaftliche Veranstaltungen

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
SeeDS 24.11.2011 University of Neuchâtel


Kommunikation mit der Öffentlichkeit

Kommunikation Titel Medien Ort Jahr
Neue Medien (Web, Blogs, Podcasts, NewsFeed, usw.) Malaria: les mésanges paient le prix fort en cas de famille nombreuse Journal en ligne de l'Université de Lausanne Westschweiz 14.09.2011
Medienarbeit: Radio, Fernsehen Paludisme : les chauve-souris aussi Radio Suisse Romande Westschweiz 08.03.2011

Verbundene Projekte

Nummer Titel Start Förderungsinstrument
159600 Evolution of host preferences and mechanisms of parasite resistance in birds and mosquitoes infected with avian malaria 01.04.2015 Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
104118 The economics of anti-parasite defences in animals 01.05.2004 Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
138187 Physiological mechanisms of parasite resistance, local adaptation and host preference by vectors in a natural population of great tits infected with two main lineages of avian malaria 01.01.2012 Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)

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