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The genetics of inbreeding depression, hybrid vigour, and genetic load in structured populations

Titel Englisch The genetics of inbreeding depression, hybrid vigour, and genetic load in structured populations
Gesuchsteller/in Haag Christoph
Nummer 118185
Förderungsinstrument Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)
Forschungseinrichtung Unité d'Ecologie et Evolution Département de Biologie Université de Fribourg
Hochschule Universität Freiburg - FR
Hauptdisziplin Zoologie
Beginn/Ende 01.02.2008 - 31.10.2011
Bewilligter Betrag 299'304.00
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Keywords (10)

inbreeding depression; daphnia; genetic architecture; dominance; overdominance; deleterious mutation; fitness; genetic drift; natural selection; population structure

Lay Summary (Englisch)

Lead
Lay summary
Evolution occurs because individuals in natural populations differ in fitness and because these fitness differences are heritable. However, the genetic basis of this heritable variation in fitness is not well understood. For instance, we know little about how many genes are involved and what the effects of these genes are. Theoretical models predict that this depends on population size: In small populations fitness variation is expected to be due to many genes of small effects, whereas in large populations, few genes with large effects are expected to contribute substantially to fitness variation. Yet, empirical investigations of these models have met two major obstacles. First, in most organisms it is inherently difficult to measure fitness, and, second, genes of small effects can usually only be detected with unreasonably large sample sizes. We have developed an experimental protocol which can overcome both difficulties. The protocol utilizes the peculiar life cycle of the water flea Daphnia, which can reproduce both sexually and asexually. This life cycle allows us to detect even small fitness differences because these differences can accumulate during several generations of asexual reproduction. We will use specific sexual crosses that lead, in the absence of selection, to known proportions of different genotypes (so-called Mendelian ratios). Therefore, we can infer fitness directly from deviations from these expected proportions. In order to do so, we choose marker genes, which are not themselves influenced by selection, but which represent selection in the chromosomal region around these genes. In fact, this method is closely related to the breeding designs that have been used to construct “genetic maps”, which specify the order of different genes on chromosomes of species such as Drosophila and mouse. The difference is that, in our case, we map the naturally occurring genetic variation for fitness. This project will thus yield much needed empirical data to evaluate the above-mentioned theoretical models. The predictions of these models have strong implications for adaptation in small and large populations. Hence, evaluating these predictions is important for evolutionary biology in general, and also for the conservation of small populations in the light of environmental change.
Direktlink auf Lay Summary Letzte Aktualisierung: 21.02.2013

Verantw. Gesuchsteller/in und weitere Gesuchstellende

Mitarbeitende

Publikationen

Publikation
Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry.
Joron Mathieu, Frezal Lise, Jones Robert T, Chamberlain Nicola L, Lee Siu F, Haag Christoph R, Whibley Annabel, Becuwe Michel, Baxter Simon W, Ferguson Laura, Wilkinson Paul A, Salazar Camilo, Davidson Claire, Clark Richard, Quail Michael A, Beasley Helen, Glithero Rebecca, Lloyd Christine, Sims Sarah, Jones Matthew C, Rogers Jane, Jiggins Chris D, ffrench-Constant Richard H (2011), Chromosomal rearrangements maintain a polymorphic supergene controlling butterfly mimicry., in Nature, 477(7363), 203-6.
Frequency and inheritance of non-male producing clones in Daphnia magna: evolution towards sex specialization in a cyclical parthenogen?
Galimov Y, Walser B, Haag C R (2011), Frequency and inheritance of non-male producing clones in Daphnia magna: evolution towards sex specialization in a cyclical parthenogen?, in Journal of evolutionary biology, 24(7), 1572-83.
Ecological differentiation between coexisting sexual and asexual strains of Daphnia pulex.
Lehto Mikko P, Haag Christoph R (2010), Ecological differentiation between coexisting sexual and asexual strains of Daphnia pulex., in The Journal of animal ecology, 79(6), 1241-50.
Effects of inbreeding on aversive learning in Drosophila.
Nepoux V, Haag C R, Kawecki T J (2010), Effects of inbreeding on aversive learning in Drosophila., in Journal of evolutionary biology, 23(11), 2333-45.
Nucleotide polymorphism at a gene (Pgi) under balancing selection in a butterfly metapopulation.
Wheat Christopher W, Haag Christoph R, Marden James H, Hanski Ilkka, Frilander Mikko J (2010), Nucleotide polymorphism at a gene (Pgi) under balancing selection in a butterfly metapopulation., in Molecular biology and evolution, 27(2), 267-81.
Nucleotide polymorphism and within-gene recombination in Daphnia magna and D. pulex, two cyclical parthenogens.
Haag Christoph R, McTaggart Seanna J, Didier Anaïs, Little Tom J, Charlesworth Deborah (2009), Nucleotide polymorphism and within-gene recombination in Daphnia magna and D. pulex, two cyclical parthenogens., in Genetics, 182(1), 313-23.
Fitness differences associated with Pgi SNP genotypes in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia).
Orsini L, Wheat C W, Haag C R, Kvist J, Frilander M J, Hanski I (2009), Fitness differences associated with Pgi SNP genotypes in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia)., in Journal of evolutionary biology, 22(2), 367-75.
Experimental evolution of field populations of Daphnia magna in response to parasite treatment.
Zbinden M, Haag C R, Ebert D (2008), Experimental evolution of field populations of Daphnia magna in response to parasite treatment., in Journal of evolutionary biology, 21(4), 1068-78.
High genetic and morphological diversity despite range contraction in the diploid
Frey D. J., Haag C. R., Kozlowski G., Mráz P., High genetic and morphological diversity despite range contraction in the diploid, in Botanical Jounal ov the Linnean Society, In Press.
Population genetics of duplicated alternatively spliced exons of the dscam gene in
Brites D., Encinas-Viso F., Ebert D., Du Pasquier L., Haag C. R., Population genetics of duplicated alternatively spliced exons of the dscam gene in, in PLoS ONE, In Press..
Strong intraspecific variation in genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in
Walser B., Haag C. R., Strong intraspecific variation in genetic diversity and genetic differentiation in, in Molecular Ecology, In Press.

Wissenschaftliche Veranstaltungen

Aktiver Beitrag

Titel Art des Beitrags Titel des Artikels oder Beitrages Datum Ort Beteiligte Personen
XIII Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology 14.08.2011 Tübingen, Germany
The Daphnia Genomics Consortium Meeting 14.12.2010 Leuven, Belgium
Population genetics group meeting 14.12.2010 Liverpool, UK
Intra Specific Diversity in Aquatic Animals, SEB-workshop 14.12.2010 Sete, France
XII Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology 14.12.2009 Turin, Italy
Population Genetics Group Meeting 14.12.2008 Cardiff, UK
SMBE Meeting 01.12.2008 Barcelona, Spain


Selber organisiert

Titel Datum Ort
Swiss-Russian Cladocera symposium 14.12.2010 Fribourg, Switzerland

Verbundene Projekte

Nummer Titel Start Förderungsinstrument
138203 Assessing the genetic variation in fitness and lifespan in Daphnia magna 01.11.2011 Projektförderung (Abt. I-III)

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