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The evolution of the East African Orogen in Madagascar and its continuation into southern India

English title The evolution of the East African Orogen in Madagascar and its continuation into southern India
Applicant Schreurs Guido
Number 118023
Funding scheme Project funding (Div. I-III)
Research institution Institut für Geologie Universität Bern
Institution of higher education University of Berne - BE
Main discipline Geology
Start/End 01.12.2007 - 30.09.2010
Approved amount 169'623.00
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All Disciplines (2)

Discipline
Geology
Geochronology

Keywords (11)

MADAGASCAR; India; East African Orogeny; Gondwana; Precambrian; Tectonics; East African Orogen; Geology; Volcanism; North-South collaboration; East African Rift System

Lay Summary (English)

Lead
Lay summary
The East African Orogen is a former mountain belt that had a length of over 6000 km and formed between about 800 and 500 million years ago. During this time interval plate-tectonic movements first resulted in the closure of an oceanic basin and then in the collision of continental plates leading to the formation of a supercontinent called Gondwana. As a result of breakup of Gondwana starting about 300 million years ago, fragments of the East African Orogen are now found in eastern Africa, Antarctica, Sri Lanka, India and Madagascar. In reconstructions of Gondwana, Madagascar is usually sandwiched between eastern Africa and India. However, its precise position especially with respect to western India is still uncertain and our ongoing research sug. The presently exposed surface rocks in large parts of Madagascar and western India once were at depths of about 15-30 kilometers and thus represent the deeper parts of the former East African Orogen. How and when these rocks were uplifted to the surface is not yet well known. Relatively young volcanism (between about 30 Ma and several thousand years ago) occurs in the central and northern parts of Madagascar and is associated with young faulting. The island is affected by a large number of earthquakes, especially in central Madagascar. This suggests that the island of Madagascar is breaking apart and may represent an extension of the present-day East African rift system.

The main aims of our research: (1) to try to correlate structures in Madagascar into formerly adjacent western and southern India. Correlations will be based on satellite image analysis, fieldwork and laboratory studies on samples taken in the field (e.g. by establishing the timing of tectonic events using different absolute age dating methods), (2) to improve our understanding of when and how the rocks that were once part of the deep crust came to the surface. This will be done through fission-track analyses on selected samples and absolute age determinations of different minerals, (3) to determine the age and significance of faulting and volcanism in central Madagascar and their role in the uplift history through field studies, absolute age dating methods and geochemical analysis of rock samples.

A thorough knowledge of the formation and uplift history of the East African Orogen is economically relevant in that it will provide a better understanding of the genesis and distribution of ore and gem deposits and might help in providing a scientific basis for the establishment of hazard mitigation projects. Research is carried out in collaboration with the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Antananarivo.
Direct link to Lay Summary Last update: 21.02.2013

Responsible applicant and co-applicants

Employees

Publications

Publication
Kinematics and significance of a poly-deformed crustal-scale shear zone in central to south-eastern Madagascar: the Itremo-Ikalamavony thrust
Giese Jörg, Schreurs Guido, Berger Alfons, Herwegh Marco (2016), Kinematics and significance of a poly-deformed crustal-scale shear zone in central to south-eastern Madagascar: the Itremo-Ikalamavony thrust, in International Journal of Earth Sciences, x.
Late Quaternary history of the Vakinankaratra volcanic field (central Madagascar): insights from luminescence dating of phreatomagmatic eruption deposits
Rufer Daniel, Preusser Frank, Schreurs Guido, Gnos Edwin, Berger Alfons (2014), Late Quaternary history of the Vakinankaratra volcanic field (central Madagascar): insights from luminescence dating of phreatomagmatic eruption deposits, in Bulletin of Volcanology, 76(5), x-x.
Low-temperature evolution of the Morondava rift basin shoulder in western Madagascar: An apatite fission track study
Giese Joerg, Seward Diane, Schreurs Guido (2012), Low-temperature evolution of the Morondava rift basin shoulder in western Madagascar: An apatite fission track study, in Tectonics, 31, 1-19.
Proposing new approaches for dating young volcanic eruptions by luminescence methods
Rufer Daniel, Gnos Edwin, Mettier Ralph, Preusser Frank, Schreurs Guido (2012), Proposing new approaches for dating young volcanic eruptions by luminescence methods, in Geochronometria, 39(1), 48-56.
Direct dating of Quaternary phreatic maar eruptions by luminescence methods
Preusser Frank, Rufer Daniel, Schreurs Guido (2011), Direct dating of Quaternary phreatic maar eruptions by luminescence methods, in Geology, 39(12), 1135-1138.
The timing of the tectono-metamorphic evolution at the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary in central southern Madagascar
Giese Jörg, Berger Alfons, Schreurs Guido, Gnos Edwin (2011), The timing of the tectono-metamorphic evolution at the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary in central southern Madagascar, in Precambrian Research, 183, 131-148.
A new perspective on the significance of the Ranotsara shear zone in Madagascar
Schreurs Guido, Giese Jörg, Berger Alfons, Gnos Edwin (2010), A new perspective on the significance of the Ranotsara shear zone in Madagascar, in International Journal of Earth Sciences, x-x.
Electrodynamic Disaggregation: Does it Affect Apatite Fission-Track and (U-Th)/He Analyses?
Giese Jörg, Seward Diane, Stuart Finlay M., Wüthrich Eliane, Gnos Edwin, Kurz Daniel, Eggenberger Urs, Schreurs Guido (2010), Electrodynamic Disaggregation: Does it Affect Apatite Fission-Track and (U-Th)/He Analyses?, in Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, 1-10.
Indenter tectonics in central Madagascar
Giese Jörg, Schreurs Guido, Berger Alfons, Herwegh Marco, Gnos Edwin (2008), Indenter tectonics in central Madagascar, in Geotectonic Research, 95, 51-53.

Collaboration

Group / person Country
Types of collaboration
Prof. Diane Seward, ETH Zürich Switzerland (Europe)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results
- Publication
- Research Infrastructure
Prof. Michel Rakotondrazafy, Département des Sciences de la Terre, Université d'Antananarivo Madagascar (Africa)
- in-depth/constructive exchanges on approaches, methods or results

Scientific events

Active participation

Title Type of contribution Title of article or contribution Date Place Persons involved
Invited lecture ETH Zürich Individual talk A new perspective on the significance of the Ranotsara Zone in Madagascar: Implications for Gondwana reconstructions 21.12.2011 Zürich, Switzerland Schreurs Guido;
Invited lecture, Université d'Antananarivo Individual talk Une nouvelle interpretation de la zone Ranotsara_ Implictions pour la reconstruction du Gondwana 11.02.2010 Antananarivo, Madagascar Schreurs Guido;
Goldschmidt Lecture at NGU (Norwegian Geological Survey) Individual talk A new perspective on the significance of the Ranotsara Zone in Madagascar: Implications for Gondwana reconstructions 17.12.2009 Trondheim, Norway Schreurs Guido;
2nd Internation Symposum on Luminescence Talk given at a conference Direction and measurement of spatially resolved dose rates using imaging plates 29.06.2009 Port Elizabeth, South Africa Rufer Daniel;
6th Swiss Geoscience Meeting Talk given at a conference Evolution of the Morondava basin shoulder in western Madagascar - an apatite fission-track study 21.11.2008 Lugano, Switzerland Schreurs Guido; Giese Jörg;
6th Swiss Geoscience Meeting Individual talk Proposing IR stimulated luminescence to date Quaternary phreatomagmatic eruptions from central Madagascar 21.11.2008 Lugano, Switzerland Rufer Daniel; Schreurs Guido;
12th International Conference on Luminescence and Electron Spin Resonance Dating Talk given at a conference Luminescence dating of phreatomagmatic eruptions from central Madagascar 18.09.2008 Beijing, China Schreurs Guido; Rufer Daniel;
12th International Conference on Luminescence and Electron Spin Resonance Dating Talk given at a conference Detection and Measurement of spatially resolved dose rates using imaging plates 18.09.2008 Beijing, China Rufer Daniel;
International Geological Congress - 33IGC Talk given at a conference A new perspective on the significance of the Ranotsara Zone in central Madagascar 05.08.2008 Oslo, Norway Schreurs Guido; Giese Jörg; Berger Alfons; Gnos Edwin;
Tektonik, Struktur- und Kristallingeologie - TSK 12 Talk given at a conference Indenter tectonics in central Madagascar 02.04.2008 Karlsruhe, Germany Gnos Edwin; Berger Alfons; Schreurs Guido; Giese Jörg;


Communication with the public

Communication Title Media Place Year
Talks/events/exhibitions Ein Geologe in Madagascar German-speaking Switzerland 2011

Associated projects

Number Title Start Funding scheme
105453 The evolution of the East African Orogen in central Madagascar and its Phanerozoic exhumation 01.12.2004 Project funding (Div. I-III)

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